Command Line Client¶
StratusLab provides a simple command line client that is easy to install on all platforms. This client provides access to all of the StratusLab services.
The command line client is the principal method for accessing the StratusLab services. It is written almost entirely in portable python and is easy to install and configure on all platforms (Linux, Mac OS X, Windows).
A list of the commands along with brief descriptions are provided in the
table. All of the commands start with the
stratus- prefix. On
platforms that support it, tab completion can be used to find all of the
commands. All of the commands support the
--help option, which
provides detailed information about the command and its options. All of
the commands also support the
--version option that will display the
version of the client being used.
||copy reference configuration file into the correct location|
||list VM instances|
||start a new VM instance|
||destroy and release resources for a given VM instance|
||stop and save a VM instance, must be used
||list persistent disk volumes|
||create a new persistent disk volume|
||destroy an existing persistent disk volume|
||dynamically attach a persistent disk volume to a VM instance|
||dynamically detach a persistent disk volume from a VM instance|
||update the metadata for a persistent disk volume|
||create a Marketplace entry for a VM image|
||cryptographically sign a Marketplace entry for a VM image|
||verify that a VM image entry is syntactically correct and signed|
||upload a VM image entry to the Marketplace|
||deprecate a Marketplace entry for a VM image|
||create a new VM image from an existing image|
||(deprecated) upload an image to the appliance repository|
||connect via ssh to a given VM instance|
||hash a password to give to cloud administrator|
||prepare a CloudInit contextualization file|
||utility to run a batch cluster on the cloud|
Table: Overview of StratusLab commands.
Verifying the Prerequisities¶
Before starting, you must verify that the prerequisites for the StratusLab command line are satisfied:
- Python 2 (2.6+), virtualenv and pip are installed.
- Java 1.6 or later is installed.
- An SSH client is installed with an SSH key pair.
- You have an active StratusLab account and connection parameters.
Quick recipes for checking the first three points are below, with more detailed information in the appendices.
For the StratusLab account, you must contact the administrator of your cloud infrastructure. The administrator must give you 1) your credentials and 2) the service endpoints of the cloud infrastructure.
You can quickly verify the availability of Python and utilities with the following commands:
$ python --version Python 2.6.6 $ which virtualenv /usr/bin/virtualenv
Note that pip is always installed with virtualenv.
Similarly for java use the following:
$ java -version java version "1.7.0_19" OpenJDK Runtime Environment (rhel-188.8.131.52.el6_4-x86_64) OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 23.7-b01, mixed mode)
Note that there is only one hyphen in the option.
For SSH check to see if the directory
$HOME/.ssh/ contains files
starting with “
$ ls $HOME/.ssh/id_* /home/sluser/.ssh/id_rsa /home/sluser/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
For local installations of the StratusLab client, for example within a non-priviledged user account or on a user’s laptop, an installation using virtualenv and pip is very strongly recommended.
Assuming that the prerequisites are installed, the installation is just a matter of a few commands. First create a virtual environment to hold the StratusLab client and its dependencies.
$ virtualenv $HOME/env/SL New python executable in /home/sluser/env/SL/bin/python Installing setuptools............done. Installing pip...............done.
You may want to choose a different name or location for your virtual environment. Now you will need to activate that environment.
$ source $HOME/env/SL/bin/activate (SL)$
The prompt should change to include the name of the virtual environment.
Now use pip to install the StratusLab client:
(SL)$ pip install stratuslab-client Downloading/unpacking stratuslab-client Downloading stratuslab-client-13.05.0.RC1.tar.gz ... ... Successfully installed stratuslab-client dirq ... Cleaning up...
This will also install all of the required Python dependencies for the client as well. (The above output has been abridged.)
You can verify that the client is installed and accessible with by searching for one of the StratusLab commands:
(SL)$ which stratus-copy-config ~/env/SL/bin/stratus-copy-config
All of the StratusLab commands begin with
stratus-. On systems that
support it, you can use tab completion to see all of the available
Once the client is installed, it must be configured. See the instructions below.
System Wide Installation¶
The above method can also be used for system wide installations for multi-user machines. Simply use pip directly without using virtualenv.
Additionally, StratusLab provides client packages for RedHat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) systems. These packages work also on derivatives of these systems like CentOS, ScientificLinux, and OpenSuSE.
You must have root access to your machine to install these packages. For
RHEL and RHEL-like systems, it is recommended to do the installation
with yum. The configuration for yum
tells yum where to find the StratusLab packages. Choose the
repository. Use the command:
$ yum install stratuslab-cli-user
to install the latest version of the client tools.
For SuSE, configure zypper for the StratusLab OpenSuSE repository (“opensuse-12.1”) and use it to install the package.
Users must then configure the client within their accounts.
The values of the configuration parameters for the client can be provided in several different ways. The various mechanisms in order of precedence are:
- Command line parameters
- Environment variables (
- Configuration file parameters
- Defaults in the code
The names of the command line parameters and the environmental variables can be derived from the name of the configuration file parameter. The table gives an example for one parameter and the algorithm for deriving the other names.
||configuration file parameter|
||command line option: change underscores
to hyphens and prefix with two hyphens
||environmental variable: make all letters
uppercase, prefix with
Table: Deriving command line option and environmental names from the configuration file parameter.
The configuration file is in the standard INI format. The file must
[default] section. It may also contain additional
sections describing parameters for different cloud infrastructures.
A minimal configuration file, assuming that a username/password pair is used for credentials is:
[default] endpoint = cloud.lal.stratuslab.eu pdisk_endpoint = pdisk.lal.stratuslab.eu username = sluser password = slpass
The values will obviously have to change to correspond to your credentials and the cloud infrastructure that you are using.
StratusLab provides a very flexible authentication system, supporting username/password pairs, X509 certificates, Globus/VOMS certificate proxies, and PKCS12 certificates.
||user’s StratusLab username|
||X509 or proxy certificate file|
||X509 or proxy key file|
Table: Parameters for supplying user credentials.
Users should specify either the username/password or the pem_certificate/pem_key parameters but not both sets. If both are specified, then the username/password will take precedence.
The default for the pem certificate and key are the files
userkey.pem, respectively in the directory
$HOME/.globus. Contrary to the usual rules, the command line
The user must also specify the cloud service endpoints. These will be provided by the cloud administrator.
||cloud entry point (VM mgt.)|
||pdisk entry point (storage mgt.)|
Table: Cloud service endpoints.
pdisk_endpoint parameter is not specified, then the value for
endpoint will be used. The default value for the
https://marketplace.stratuslab.eu/, the central
Various other credentials are used to access running virtual machines and for signing information for the Marketplace.
||user public SSH key file|
||password for PKCS12 certificate|
Table: Other user credentials.
The default for the public SSH key file is
Contrary to the usual rules, the environmental variable and command line
The PKCS12 certificate is used to sign image metadata entries before
uploading them to the Marketplace. Contrary to the usual rules, the
command line option for the parameter
If more than one StratusLab cloud infrastructure is being used, then the configuration for all of these can be kept in a single file. This allows you to quickly switch between the various clouds.
In the configuration file it is possible to create uniquely named user specific sections to define any of the variables described above. Example of ‘endpoint’
[my-section] endpoint = <another.cloud.frontend.hostname> username = <another.username> password = <another.password>
which can be activated using the
selected_section parameter in the
[default] section of the configuration file:
selected_section = my-section
It can also be activated using command-line options
-S or via the environmental variable
This example configuration file defines custom ‘fav-cloud’ section with endpoint/credentials and a custom SSH key:
[fav-cloud] endpoint = favorit-cloud.tld username = clouduser password = cloudpass user_public_key_file = /home/clouduser/.ssh/id_rsa-favcloud.pub
Values for parameters not specified in this section will be taken from